Vril parasite

Vril parasite DEFAULT

The Nazis Came From Middle Earth (and Possibly Still Live There)

In , under anonymous cover, the writer-politician Edward Bulwer-Lytton published the novella Vril: The Power of the Coming Race. Bulwer-Lytton is now most famous for coining the phrase “The pen is mightier than the sword” and the opening line “It was a dark and stormy night,” but Vril, too, has had a long afterlife. A conflation of Verne-esque hollow-Earth sci-fi, proto-occult theories, and Darwinism, it’s narrated by an American who stumbles on an underground race, descended from ancient Aryans, that’s harnessed a source of infinite power called Vril. Its possessors, the Vril-ya, have transcended war, envy, and even democracy to establish a classless utopia. But of course, they have a dark side; lacking the imperfections of humanity but also its empathy, they may one day destroy it.

The myth of Vril was quickly co-opted by the same Victorian mystics who inspired it, then passed down into the hands of nativist German cults. One of them, the Thule Society, backed Hitler and the Nazis. After the war, writers both pro- and anti-Hitler theorized that, the Führer’s impatience with occultists notwithstanding, something called the Vril Society had actually engineered his rise. In a book, two French authors asserted that the Nazis had sought to build UFOs powered by Vril. From there it wasn’t too much of a leap for others to suggest that, perhaps, Hitler had actually fled to Antartica, made contact with underground Aryans, and begun plotting a Vril-powered reconquest. A few influential Holocaust deniers celebrated the coming Fourth Reich, while more recent American writers have incorporated the theory into the right-wing, New World Order mainstream of conspiracy thought. In short: the Nazis and/or aliens are already here.

And in New Jersey sits the Church of Vrilology, a neo-Norse cult led by a Joe Pesci–like figure named Robert Blumetti, teaching Vril-abetted positive-thinking techniques. Alas, Vrilology is “NOT FOR EVERYONE,” per the church’s website. It is “A NEW FAUSTIAN FOLK RELIGION FOR EUROPEAN MAN AND WOMAN.”

And They’re Running Everything!

According to Dave Emory’s radio programs, nearly every figure in world politics is a tendril of the “Underground Reich,” a network including Hitler’s personal secretary. There’s no denying that IBM and Volkswagen had ties to the Third Reich or that German spies were absorbed into Western intelligence agencies—but Emory’s present-day analysis is a little more paranoid, even for the age of WikiLeaks (a Nazi data-mining operation).

The Nazis Came From Middle Earth (and Possibly St […]Sours: https://nymag.com/news/features/conspiracy-theories/nazi-vril-society/

Mind Control: How Parasites Manipulate Cognitive Functions in Their Insect Hosts

Introduction

The ability of parasites to alter the behavior of their hosts has recently generated an unusual interest in both scientists and non-scientists. One reason is that parasites alter the behavior of their host in such a way as to suggest a hijacking of their ability to make decisions. However, how parasites manipulate their hosts is not an esoteric topic, fascinating with its evocation of gruesome zombie movies involving body snatchers. It is rather the understanding of these processes provide fundamental insights into the neurobiology of behavior. Although our understanding of the neural mechanisms of parasitic manipulation is still lacking, there have been some major advances over the past few years. Since most animals are insects, it is not surprising that many case studies of animals that are manipulated by parasites are insects. The diversity of parasites that can manipulate insect behavior ranges from viruses to worms and also includes other insects that have evolved to become parasites (Hughes and Libersat, ). In this short review, we will focus on mind control or the manipulation of cognitive functions in Parasite&#x;Insect associations. We will consider cognition here in a broad sense as the ability of insects to behave not just like reflex machines or automatons (Webb, ), but that insects are capable of informed choice-making and goal-directed behavior in a dynamic environment. Recent accumulating evidence demonstrates that insects are more than just automatons and capable of expressing endogenously-created patterns of spontaneous behavior (Perry et al., ). For instance, when a single odor is presented to fruit flies in a T-maze at two different concentrations that are easy to tell apart, they make quick decisions and moved to the correct and rewarded end of the chamber. However, when presented with two very near concentrations of the same odor which are difficult to tell apart, the flies take much longer to make a decision leading also to more mistakes. This increase in reaction time when faced with poor quality of sensory information indicates a decision-making process in their tiny brains (DasGupta et al., ). Furthermore, when fruit flies fly in a white and completely featureless arena, they express endogenously-created patterns of spontaneous behavior (Maye et al., ). This suggests a non-random endogenous process of behavioral choice, which might imply a precursor motif of spontaneous behavior (as opposed to reflexive behavior).

We will first address manipulations that affect an individual host. For the sake of clarity, we have classified these into three general categories: (1) those that affect the compass or navigation of the host that leads to a suicidal behavior. (2) Those which induce the so-called bodyguard behavior. (3) Those that affect the host motivation to move. Then, with some insect species being social and living in colony, we will address manipulations that affect the individual in a social context. Regarding the latter, we will highlight examples of manipulation where the individual, when infected, shows antisocial behavior.

Suicidal Behavior

Some parasitic fungi and worms manipulate their host&#x;s navigational system in most strange ways. Such manipulation ends with the suicide of the host. For example, an ant falling victim to parasitic fungus of the genus Cordyceps is manipulated to produce a behavior that facilitate dispersal of the fungus, thereby optimizing the parasite&#x;s chances of reproduction (Hughes, ). To this end, Cordyceps fungi produce chemicals that alter the navigational sense of their ant hosts. It begins with the attachment of the spores of the fungus to the cuticle of the ant. The spores then germinate and break into the ant&#x;s body by diffusing through the tracheae. Then, fungal filaments called mycelia grow by feeding on the host&#x;s organs, avoiding, however, vital ones. The fungus then produces certain, yet unidentified, chemicals that cause the ant to climb to the top of a tree or plant and clamp its mandibles around a leaf or leaf stem to stay in place, a behavior that has never reported for uninfected ants. When the fungus is ready to produce spores, it eventually feeds on the ant&#x;s brain and thus kills it. The fruiting bodies of the fungus then sprout out of the cuticle and release capsules filled with spores. The airborne capsules explode on their descent, spreading the spores over the surrounding area to infect other ants and thus start another cycle (Hughes et al., ).

Ants can also fall victim to another parasite with a strategy to facilitate the transmission from the intermediate host (the ant) to the final host (a grazing animal). The Lancet liver fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) takes over the ant&#x;s (Formica fusca) navigational skills to coerce it into climbing to the tip of a blade of grass (Hohorst and Graefe, ). In this position, the ant waits for its deadly fate: being eaten by a grazing animal. The cycle starts with the mature Lancet fluke housing in the liver of the grazing animal and producing eggs which are expelled in the digestive system of the grazer to end up in its feces. Snails get infected by feeding on such droppings. The fluke larvae settle in the snail to be in turn expelled in slime balls. Ants are fond of these slime balls and after a brief sojourn in the ant&#x;s gut, the parasites infest the ant&#x;s hemolymph and drift inside its body. Remarkably, only one of those parasites migrates alone to the ant&#x;s head and settles next to one of the cerebral ganglia, the sub-esophageal ganglion. In this strategic location, it presumably releases some unknown chemicals to control the ant behavior. When evening approaches and the air cools, the infested ant leaves the colony and moves upward to the top of a blade of grass. Once there, it clamps its mandibles onto the top of the blade and stays, waiting to be devoured by some grazer. At the break of day, if the ant life was spared during the night, it returns to the ground and behaves normally. When evening comes again, the fluke takes control again and sends the ant back up the grass for another attempt until a grazing animal wanders by and eats the grass. And so begins a new cycle for the parasite.

Parasites are not necessarily phylogenetically distant from their host. For instance, the crypt gall wasp (Bassettia pallida) parasitizes oaks. It lays an egg in the stem and larva induces the development of a &#x;crypt&#x; within growing stems. This &#x;crypt&#x; serves as protection to the larva until it pupates and digs its way out of the stem. This parasitic wasp can be manipulated by another wasp: the parasitoid crypt-keeper wasp (Euderus set) (Weinersmith et al., ). When parasitized, adult gall wasps dig an emergence hole in the crypt wall as they do normally, however, instead of emerging through the hole, they plug the hole with their head and die. This benefits the parasite, instead of having to excavate an emergence hole of its own to avoid being trapped, it can use the host&#x;s head capsule as an emergence. Dissections of head-plugged crypts reveal larval and pupal stages of the parasitoid residing partly within the crypt and partly within the host&#x;s body.

Crickets and other terrestrial insects can fall victim to hairworms, which develop inside their bodies and lead them to commit suicide in water, enabling the exit of the parasite into an aquatic environment favorable to its reproduction (Figure 1A). The mechanisms used by hairworms (Paragordius tricuspidatus) to increase the water-seeking behavior of their orthopteran hosts (Nemobius sylvestris) remain a poorly understood aspect of this manipulative process (Ponton et al., ). Results of two earlier proteomics studies suggest that phototaxis alterations (i.e., changes in the responses to light stimuli) could be a part of a wider strategy of hairworms for completion of their life cycles (Biron et al., , ). Specifically, parasite-induced positive phototaxis could improve the encounter rate with water (Biron et al., ). This assumption was derived from two arguments. Firstly, in the native forest of southern France, water areas such as ponds and rivers are, at night, luminous openings contrasting with the dense surrounding forest. Thus, light could then be a sensory cue that leads infected arthropods to an aquatic environment (Henze and Labhart, ). Secondly, besides this ecological reasoning, proteomics data reveal a differential expression of protein families that may be functional components of the visual cycle in the central nervous system of crickets harboring hairworms (Biron et al., ).

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FIGURE 1.(A) A parasitic worm emerging from its drowning cricket host (Credit: Pascal Goetgheluck). (B) Ladybug guarding a wasp cocoon (Credit: Mathieu B. Morin). (C) Wasp manipulates caterpillar into serving as a bodyguard to it cocoons (Credit: Jose Lino-Neto). (D) Wasp injects venom into the brain of a cockroach to use it as a fresh food supply for its offspring (from the authors&#x; lab).

Offspring Care

Although solitary insects are not known to provide care and safety to their offspring, one of the most fascinating behavioral manipulations of parasites is to coerce a host to care for the parasite&#x;s offspring. This manipulation is known in insect parasitoids and consists in coercing the host in providing protection to the parasite&#x;s offspring from predators (the so-called bodyguard manipulation ). Protection of this form has been reported for various caterpillar-wasp associations. First, the wasp (A member of the Glyptapanteles species) stings and injects her eggs into the caterpillar (Thyrinteina leucocerae) (Grosman et al., ). The caterpillar quickly recovers from the attack and resumes feeding. The wasp larvae mature by feeding on the host, and after 2 weeks, up to 80 fully grown larvae emerge from the host prior to pupation. One or two larvae remain within the caterpillar while their siblings perforate the caterpillar body and begin to pupate. After emergence of the larval wasps to pupate, the remaining larvae take control of the caterpillar behavior by an unknown mechanism, causing the host to snap its upper body back and forth violently, deterring predators and protecting their pupating siblings (Figure 1B). Un-parasitized caterpillars do not show this behavior. This bodyguard behavior results in a reduction in mortality of the parasitic wasp offspring. Interestingly, this aggressive behavior of the caterpillar toward intruders must be a component of the host&#x;s behavioral repertoire that is usurped by the parasitoid to fulfill another purpose beneficial to the wasp.

Another species of wasp manipulates its host even after leaving the host&#x;s body. In the exquisite manipulation, the wasp (Dinocampus coccinellae) inserts one egg only into a ladybug (Coleomegilla maculata) and after emergence of the larva, the ladybug guards the cocoon (Maure et al., ). Initially, the single wasp larva develops inside the body of its host, but after about 20 days, it emerges from the ladybug&#x;s body and spins a cocoon between its legs. Once the wasp larva has emerged, the ladybug remains alive on top of the cocoon (Figure 1C), twitching its body to keep the single wasp pupa safe from potential predators such as lacewings (Dheilly et al., ). The survival rate of cocoons protected by living ladybugs from a lacewing predator (another insect) is roughly 65%. If cocoons are left unprotected or attached to dead ladybugs, none or at best 15% survive. Thus, the ladybug, as a bodyguard of the wasp offspring is similar in function to that of the preceding example. Given that the wasp pupa is outside of the ladybug body, and no siblings remain inside the ladybug body, how does this manipulation occur? It appears the wasp injects together with an egg, a virus. The larval-stage parasite contains the virus, and just before the larva exits the host to pupate (and benefits from the bodyguard behavior), it experiences a massive increase in viral replication which are transmitted to the ladybug. The virus replication in the host&#x;s nervous tissue induces a severe neuropathy and antiviral immune response that correlates with the symptoms characterizing the motor twitches that serve to protect the pupa (Dheilly et al., ). Hence, the virus is apparently responsible for the behavioral change because of its invasion of the ladybug&#x;s brain and the virus clearance correlates with behavioral recovery of the host.

On the surface, the interactions between the caterpillar (Narathura japonica) and the ants (Pristomyrmex punctatus) looks like an evolved mutualism (an association between two organisms of different species that beneficial to both organisms). But with a closer look, the caterpillar, which is tended by ants, provides the ants with a secreted substance (sugar-rich secretions) which makes the attendant ants more aggressive. When more aggressive, the ants are less likely to move away from the caterpillar, thereby reducing the chances that the caterpillar would be targeted by predators (Hojo et al., ). Although the caterpillar does not invade the ant&#x;s body, the researchers found elevated levels of Dopamine in the ant&#x;s nervous system.

Spontaneity

The neuronal underpinnings responsible for behavioral spontaneity in insects remain elusive. In our laboratory, we are exploring a unique and naturally-occurring phenomenon in which one insect uses neurotoxins to apparently hijack the decision-making ability of another. This phenomenon, a result of millions of years of co-evolution between a cockroach and its wasp parasitoid, offers a unique opportunity to study the roots and mechanisms of spontaneous behavior in non-human organisms. So far, our investigations point to one possible neuronal substrate involved in the regulation of spontaneous behavior in insects.

The cockroach central nervous system comprises two cerebral ganglia in the head, the supraesophageal ganglion (&#x;brain&#x;) and the subesophageal ganglion (SEG). The cerebral ganglia have been implicated in controlling expression of locomotor patterns that are generated in the thoracic ganglia (Kien and Altman, ; Schaefer and Ritzmann, ). The thoracic ganglia house networks of inter- and motoneurons, which, among other functions, generate the motor patterns for flight and walking. In the brain, numerous investigations suggest that a central structure called the central complex (CX), which is involved in sensory integration and pre-motor processing, is also involved in ongoing regulation of locomotion. For instance, in cockroaches, some CX units show increased firing rates preceding initiation of locomotion and stimulation of the CX promotes walking, indicating that the CX is predominantly permissive for walking (Bender et al., ). The Jewel Wasp (Ampulex compressa) stings cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) (Figure 1D) and injects venom into the SEG and in and around the CX in the brain (Haspel et al., ). The venom induces a long-term hypokinetic state characterized by the inability of the stung cockroach to initiate walking. Other behaviors such as righting, flying, or grooming are not affected. Although stung cockroaches seldom express spontaneous or evoked walking under natural conditions, immersing them in water is stressful enough to induce spontaneous coordinated walking similar to that observed in un-stung cockroaches. However, stung cockroaches maintain swimming for much shorter durations than un-stung cockroaches, as if they &#x;despair&#x; faster (Gal and Libersat, ). This and other examples suggest that the venom selectively attenuates the ongoing &#x;drive&#x; of cockroaches to produce walking-related behaviors, rather than their mechanical ability to do so. Our recent data indicate that behavioral manipulation of cockroaches by the jewel wasp is achieved by venom-induced inhibition of neuronal activity in the CX and SEG. Our results show that focal injection of procaine or venom into the CX is sufficient to induce a decrease in spontaneous walking indicating that the CX is necessary for the initiation of spontaneous walking. Furthermore, venom injection to either the SEG or the CX of the brain is, by itself, sufficient to decrease walking initiation (Gal and Libersat, ; Kaiser and Libersat, ). Hence, our investigation of the neuronal basis of such parasite-induced alterations of host behavior suggests that the parasite has evolved ways to tap on the host&#x;s brain circuitry responsible for behavioral spontaneity.

Sociality

The organization of insect sociality implies cooperative care of offspring and a division of labor into different castes each with a specific task for the benefit of the society (Michener, ). This complex organization can be penetrated by specialist social parasites (Barbero et al., ). One such parasite is the caterpillar (Maculinea rebeli) which mimics the ants (Myrmica schencki) surface chemistry and the sounds they use to communicate, allowing it to penetrate the ant colonies undetected and enjoy the treats of their queen larvae (Akino et al., ; Thomas and Settele, ). Ironically, those social parasites are the victims of a parasitoid wasp (Ichneumon eumerus) which deposits its eggs into the caterpillar. The wasp&#x;s offsprings emerge later as adults from the caterpillar cocoon. The wasp seeks the caterpillar host by first detecting the ant colonies. The body surface chemicals expressed by the wasp induce aggression in ants, leading to in-fighting between the ants. This distraction permits the wasp to penetrate the nest and attack the caterpillar host.

In fire ant parasitic flies (Pseudacteon tricuspis), the female will strike an ant and inject an egg into the ant&#x;s (Solenopsis invicta) body. After the larva hatches, it moves into the ant&#x;s head and feeds mostly on hemolymph (the equivalent of blood in insect) until just prior to pupation. The larva then consumes the contents of the ant&#x;s head, upon which the head usually falls free of the body. The adult fly will emerge from the ant&#x;s head 2&#x;6 weeks after pupation. Unlike un-parasitized ants which die inside the nest, those parasitized by the fly larvae leave the safety of the nest shortly before their decapitation. Yet, when parasitized ants leave their nest prior to decapitation, their behavior is indistinguishable from un-parasitized ants. The host&#x;s brain is evidently still intact when the ants leave the colony as it is last consumed by the parasitoid (Henne and Johnson, ).

From ants to honeybees; Microsporidia (Nosema ceranae), a unicellular parasite, infection in honey bees (Apis mellifera) affects a range of individual and social behaviors in young adult bees (Lecocq et al., ). In social bees, age polyethism refers to the functional specialization of different members of a colony based on age. Infection of bees by the parasite significantly accelerates age polyethism causing them to exhibit behaviors typical of older bees. Infected bees also have significantly increased walking rates and higher rates of trophallaxis (food exchange) (Lecocq et al., ).

Switching from social bees to social wasps, a fly-like larva (Xenos vesparum) waits for a wasp (Polistes dominula) to land nearby and strikes, penetrating the wasp cuticle to dwell into its abdomen and feeds on its blood (Beani, ). Paper wasps are eusocial animals, the highest organization of sociality in animals. When infected with the fly parasite, the normally social wasp starts withdrawing from its colony showing some erratic behavior for no apparent reason other than the presence of the parasite inside it body, messing up with its brain (Hughes et al., ). Eusocial colonies include two or more overlapping generations, show cooperative brood care and are divided into reproductive and non-reproductive castes. Individuals of at least one caste usually lose the ability to perform at least one behavior characteristic of individuals in another caste (Michener, ). Paper wasp colonies are founded in the spring by one or several females gynes (non-working pre-overwintering queens), who build the nest and rear a first generation of female workers. The founding female will become the primary reproductive colony queen, while the workers perform tasks such as nest building and brood care. Later in the colony cycle, larvae are reared by workers and emerge as males or female gynes. Those gynes leave the colony in the fall to form aggregations outside the colony with other gynes, where they spend the winter until they scatter to find new colonies in the spring. Female wasps infested by the fly-like larva undergo dramatic behavioral changes. Although those females should be workers they behave as typical gynes: they show nest desertion and formation of pre-overwintering aggregations. This behavior is beneficial for the mating and distribution of the parasite (Hughes et al., ). In early summer, the infected wasp just leaves its colony behind on a journey to a meeting place with other infected wasps. Male and female parasites can then mate. Whereas wasps infected by male flies die, those infected by females remain alive and under the control of their parasites. They begin to act like wasp zombie queens feeding and growing until they go back to their or other colonies loaded with fly larvae to infect their sister wasps. RNA-sequencing data used to characterize patterns of brain gene expression in infected and non-infected females shows that infected females show gyne brain expression patterns. These data suggest that the parasitoid affects its host by exploiting phenotypic plasticity related to social caste, thus shifting naturally occurring social behavior in a way that is beneficial to the parasitoid (Geffre et al., ).

Conclusion

For comparison, the best-studied example of parasitic manipulation of cognitive function in mammals is the case of Toxoplasmosis, an illness caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It infects rodents such as mice and rats (the intermediate host) to complete its life cycle in a cat (the final host). The parasite infects the brain forming cysts that produce an enzyme called tyrosine hydroxylase, the limiting enzyme to make dopamine. The most conspicuous behavioral modification in the rat is a switch from avoidance to attraction to cat urine (Berdoy et al., ). In doing so, the parasite facilitates its own transmission from the intermediate host to the final host. Such a specific behavioral changes suggests that the parasite finely modify the brain neurochemistry of its intermediate host to facilitate predation, leaving other behavioral traits untouched. This has led to the hypothesis that the host brain is overflown with excess dopamine produced by the parasite, hence, making dopamine the primary suspect in this manipulation. Recently, the parasite genes that encode tyrosine hydroxylase have been identified. By generating a tyrosine hydroxylase mutant parasitic strain of toxoplasma, it was possible to test directly the involvement of dopamine in the manipulation process (Afonso et al., ). The authors reported that both mice infected with wild type or mutant (enzyme deficient) strains showed both changes in exploration/risk behavior.

Although humans are dead-end host for the parasite, humans can be infected and some scientists have suggested that T. gondii infection can alter human behavior. Because the parasite infects the brain, it is suspected of making people more reckless, even being liable for certain cases of schizophrenia (Fuglewicz et al., ). However, such a hypothesis is still highly controversial and will require more investigations. Today, modern humans are not suitable intermediate hosts because big cats no longer prey upon them. Hence, behavioral modifications in humans could represent a residual manipulation that evolved in appropriate intermediate hosts. An alternative hypothesis, however, states that these changes result from parasite manipulative abilities that evolved when human ancestors were still under significant feline predation. In order to understand the origin of such behavioral change in humans, a recent study tested chimpanzees, which are still preyed upon in their natural environment by leopards. The behavioral test centered on olfactory cues showed that, whereas uninfected individuals avoided leopard urine, parasitized individuals lost this aversion (Poirotte et al., ). In the frame of the human evolution, hominids have long coexisted with large carnivores and were considered as good as a meal as our distant and extinct cousins. Hence, when big cats were chasing our ancestors, T. gondii manipulative skills could have evolved because early hominids were suitable intermediate hosts.

Beyond the awe with which we observe the amazing parasitic manipulations described in this review, there is a need to investigate the proximate mechanisms of such behavioral manipulations. Although our understanding of the neural mechanisms of parasitic manipulation is still in its infancy, there have been some major progresses mostly due to advances in molecular biology, biochemistry and biological engineering. Even with tiny quantities of the parasite&#x;s secretome (secretions produced by the parasite that may be involved in the host nervous system manipulation), we can use metabolomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic approaches to characterize the library of the secretome components. However, deciphering the composition of the parasite secretome is only the first necessary step. The next and more challenging step is to determine a causal relationship between individual secretome components and their contribution to the observed behavioral manipulation of the host. One promising avenue to address this challenge relies on the recent availability of gene editing tools such as RNA interference (a method of silencing gene product for editing the secretome content) and CRISPR Cas-9 (a method for editing parts of the genome in the parasite). By combining these tools, we are getting closer to unravel the molecular mechanisms of these extraordinary behavioral manipulations.

Author Contributions

All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Ponton, F., Otálora-Luna, F., Lefevre, T., Guerin, P. M., Lebarbenchon, C., Duneau, D., et al. (). Water-seeking behavior in worm-infected crickets and reversibility of parasitic manipulation. Behav. Ecol. 22, &#x; doi: /beheco/arq

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Weinersmith, K. L., Liu, S. M., Forbes, A. A., and Egan, S. P. (). Tales from the crypt: a parasitoid manipulates the behaviour of its parasite host. Proc. Biol. Sci. doi: /rspb

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Keywords: cognition, behavioral manipulation, insects, parasitoids, parasites, hosts, brain

Citation: Libersat F, Kaiser M and Emanuel S () Mind Control: How Parasites Manipulate Cognitive Functions in Their Insect Hosts. Front. Psychol. doi: /fpsyg

Received: 04 March ; Accepted: 04 April ;
Published: 01 May

Edited by:

Martin Giurfa, UMR , Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition Animale (CRCA), France

Copyright © Libersat, Kaiser and Emanuel. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Frederic Libersat, [email protected]

Sours: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/
  1. Photos on cardboard
  2. Vintage elephant clock
  3. Daikin technical manual

An Artist Discovered a Parasitic Worm in His Eye, Which He Said 'Guided' His Work

The eerie painting depicts an image few of us would want to see in the mirror, let alone casting a shadow across our own field of vision: a pale, segmented worm slithering across an unblinking eyeball.

Called "The Host," by contemporary artist Ben Taylor, the striking painting is based on Taylor's personal experience with a parasitic worm called Loa loa, which he discovered crawling through his eye one day in Adding to this strange tale, Taylor says he thinks the parasite influenced his artwork, even before he was aware of his infection.

"Now that I look back, I realize how strange and interesting it was to have my artwork subconsciously guided" by worms, Taylor wrote on his website. "It has made me wonder who the artist is, really?" ['Eye' Can't Look: 9 Eyeball Injuries That Will Make You Squirm]

For about two years before his diagnosis, Taylor, who lives in England, experienced a slew of mysterious symptoms, including high white blood cell counts, lumps that would appear and disappear, itchy skin patches, joint aches, severe eye pain and sensitivity to light. Taylor said he felt "a sense that amongst the millions of microscopic beings that form 'me,' that there was something gatecrashing the party." But tests for parasites came back negative.

During this period of deteriorating health, Taylor began work on an abstract painting that consisted of intricate, worm-like patterns inside a round circle. But at the time he painted it in , Taylor was not satisfied with the result. "I had no idea what compelled me to paint it, or what it was trying to say," Taylor wrote, and he shelved the work in his studio.

Months later, Taylor felt a persistent pain in his eye, and when he looked in the mirror, he saw something wriggling under the surface of his eyeball.

He went to the hospital, where an eye surgeon removed a worm inches ( centimeters) long from his eye.

Taylor was diagnosed with loiasis, an infection caused by the Loa loa worm, also known as the African eye worm. People get Loa loa if they are bitten by infected deerflies that are found in certain parts of West and Central Africa, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Taylor, who says he has spent "a lifetime living and travelling in far-flung lands," visited Gabon in Central Africa in , when he likely became infected with the worm.

After his loiasis diagnosis, Taylor underwent a week of intensive treatment, and doctors also diagnosed him with two additional parasites: hookworm and Strongyloides, a type of roundworm.

Shortly after his treatment, Taylor came across the painting he had started in and realized what it looked like. "I was immediately aware that what I had painted looked like an eye made out of intricate worm-like patterns," Taylor said. He began a "second phase" of his painting, adding eyelashes, the sclera (the white part of the eye) and the slithering white worms.

Taylor told The Washington Post that worm-like patterns were not typically his style, but oddly, he started experimenting with them as his then-mysterious symptoms progressed. "I definitely believe that the worms had a hand in that painting," he said.

Taylor's painting is featured on the cover of the August issue of the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases, which is published by the CDC. The managing editor of the journal, Byron Breedlove, came across the painting while looking for an image that would fit the issue's theme for this month: Parasitic and Tropical Diseases.

"You're sort of startled by this almost 3-D thread that runs around the eye. It's very arresting to look at," Breedlove told The Washington Post. "I realized this would make a very striking image for a cover art … You can't help but look at it … It's looking back at you."

Original article on Live Science.

Rachael has been with Live Science since She has a masters degree in journalism from New York University's Science, Health and Environmental Reporting Program. She also holds a Bachelor of Science in molecular biology and a Master of Science in biology from the University of California, San Diego.
Sours: https://www.livescience.com/parasitic-worm-eye-the-host-painting.html
Justin Bieber Transformed Into A Lizard - The Truth

For Nathalie Feiner, it was just another day in the lab. As part of her work on understanding how the common wall lizard is adapting to a changing climate, the evolutionary biologist was observing one of its eggs under a microscope when she caught a strange sight. “Something was moving in there,” says Feiner, who was at the University of Oxford at the time.

Inadvertently, she had found a parasitic worm that can move from a mother lizard to her embryos, Feiner, now at the University of Lund in Sweden, and her colleagues report in a study in press in the May issue of The American Naturalist.

Parasites moving across generations have been well-documented in mammals. But this is the first evidence of such transmission in any egg-laying amniote, a group that includes birds and reptiles, says Daniel Noble, an evolutionary ecologist at the Australian National University in Canberra. The study “establishes some critical natural history, and opens up a whole new set of exciting questions,” says Noble, who wasn’t involved in the study.

Feiner’s team collected and dissected hundreds of eggs from 85 female wall lizards captured from six different places in Italy, France and England. Of those, the parasitic worms showed up only in eggs of some lizards from the French Pyrenees. Mothers of infected embryos also carried the parasitic nematodes, the team found. But while nematodes typically reside in the gut and rectum of their hosts, these were found in the ovaries of the lizard (Podarcis muralis). As many as 16 nematodes were found freely swimming between the follicles. That proximity to developing eggs may make it possible for these worms to infect the embryos, the researchers say.

In birds, crocodiles, turtles and other reptiles, the hard, calcified eggshell starts to form inside the mother when the embryo is very young. In lizards and some snakes, though, the process begins only after a particular stage of the embryo brain development is complete. This delay in forming an eggshell might be just the window that these worms exploit to gain entry and set up residence in an embryo’s brain.

It’s unclear how the worms migrate from mom to embryo, but hiding in the braincase allows them to escape the embryo’s immune system. The worm then stays put until the egg hatches. The parasite does not appear to damage the baby lizard.

“It’s really possible that they have just coevolved so that the nematodes can survive and cope in the head, and the lizard doesn’t mind. So they just can happily exist,” says Feiner.

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A genetic analysis suggests that this parasitic worm is a close relative of Spauligodon, a gut-dwelling genus of parasite also found in these Pyrenees lizards (SN: 3/18/08). For a nematode that lives in the gut, “it might not be a very big evolutionary step” to move to the ovaries, says Feiner.

Further research will help answer questions about how and when these worms evolved, impacts on their lizard hosts and whether or not the mom-to-egg transmission is unique to this population. This parasitic lifestyle might be much more common than thought, Feiner says, &#;it&#;s just that there are not many people who look into the brains of embryos.&#;

Questions or comments on this article? E-mail us at [email protected]

Pratik Pawar is a science journalist based in Bangalore, India. He is the recipient of a EurekAlert! Fellowship for International Science Reporters.

Sours: https://www.sciencenews.org/article/new-lizard-parasite-worm-first-known-move-mom-baby-eggs-embryos

Parasite vril

Vril

For other uses, see Vril (disambiguation).

novel by Edward Bulwer-Lytton

The Coming Race is a novel by Edward Bulwer-Lytton, published anonymously in It has also been published as Vril, the Power of the Coming Race.

Some readers have believed the account of a superior subterranean master race and the energy-form called "Vril", at least in part; some theosophists, notably Helena Blavatsky, William Scott-Elliot, and Rudolf Steiner, accepted the book as based on occult truth, in part.[4] One book, The Morning of the Magicians, suggested that a secretVril Society existed in WeimarBerlin.

History[edit]

The original, British edition of The Coming Race was published anonymously in May , by Blackwood and Sons of Edinburgh and London.[2] (Blackwood published four more "editions" in )[1] Anonymous American and Canadian editions were published in August, as The Coming Race, or The New Utopia, by Francis B. Felt & Co. in New York and by Copp, Clark & Co. in Toronto.[5][6] Late in Bulwer-Lytton was known to be the author.[citation needed]Erewhon, which was also published anonymously in March , was initially assumed to be a Coming Race sequel by Bulwer-Lytton. When it was revealed that Samuel Butler was the writer in the 25 May issue of the Athenaeum; sales dropped by 90 percent.[7]

Plot summary[edit]

The novel centres on a young, independent, unnamed, wealthy traveller (the narrator), who visits a friend, a mining engineer. They explore a natural chasm in a mine which has been exposed by an exploratory shaft. The narrator reaches the bottom of the chasm safely, but the rope breaks and his friend is killed. The narrator finds his way into a subterranean world occupied by beings who seem to resemble angels. He befriends the first being he meets, who guides him around a city that is reminiscent of ancient Egyptian architecture. The explorer meets his host's wife, two sons and daughter who learn to speak English by way of a makeshift dictionary during which the narrator unconsciously teaches them the language. His guide comes towards him, and he and his daughter, Zee, explain who they are and how they function.

The hero discovers that these beings, who call themselves Vril-ya, have great telepathic and other parapsychological abilities, such as being able to transmit information, get rid of pain, and put others to sleep. The narrator is offended by the idea that the Vril-ya are better adapted to learn about him than he is to learn about them. Nevertheless, the guide (who turns out to be a magistrate) and his son Ta behave kindly towards him.

The narrator soon discovers that the Vril-ya are descendants of an antediluvian civilization called the Ana, who live in networks of caverns linked by tunnels. Originally surface dwellers, they fled underground thousands of years ago to escape a massive flood and gained greater power by facing and dominating the harsh conditions of the Earth. The place where the narrator descended houses 12, families, one of the largest groups. Their society is a technologically supported Utopia, chief among their tools being an "all-permeating fluid" called "Vril", a latent source of energy that the spiritually elevated hosts are able to master through training of their will, to a degree that depends on their hereditary constitution. This mastery gives them access to an extraordinary force that can be controlled at will. It is this fluid that the Vril-ya employ to communicate with the narrator. The powers of the Vril include the ability to heal, change, and destroy beings and things; the destructive powers in particular are immense, allowing a few young Vril-ya children to destroy entire cities if necessary.

Men (called An, pronounced "Arn") and women (called Gy, pronounced "Gee") have equal rights. The women are stronger and larger than the men. The women are also the pursuing party in romantic relationships. They marry for just three years, after which the men choose whether to remain married, or be single. The female may then pursue a new husband. However, they seldom make the choice to remarry.

Their religion posits the existence of a superior being but does not dwell on his nature. The Vril-ya believe in the permanence of life, which according to them is not destroyed but merely changes form.

The narrator adopts the attire of his hosts and begins also to adopt their customs. Zee falls in love with him and tells her father, who orders Taë to kill him with his staff. Eventually both Taë and Zee conspire against such a command, and Zee leads the narrator through the same chasm which he first descended. Returning to the surface, he warns that in time the Vril-ya will run out of habitable space underground and will claim the surface of the Earth, destroying mankind in the process, if necessary.[8]

Vril in the novel[edit]

The uses of Vril in the novel amongst the Vril-ya vary from destruction to healing. According to Zee, the daughter of the narrator's host, Vril can be changed into the mightiest agency over all types of matter, both animate and inanimate. It can destroy like lightning or replenish life, heal, or cure. It is used to rend ways through solid matter. Its light is said to be steadier, softer and healthier than that from any flammable material. It can also be used as a power source for animating mechanisms. Vril can be harnessed by use of the Vril staff or mental concentration.

A Vril staff is an object in the shape of a wand or a staff which is used as a channel for Vril. The narrator describes it as hollow with "stops", "keys", or "springs" in which Vril can be altered, modified, or directed to either destroy or heal. The staff is about the size of a walking stick but can be lengthened or shortened according to the user's preferences. The appearance and function of the Vril staff differs according to gender, age, etc. Some staves are more potent for destruction; others, for healing. The staves of children are said to be much simpler than those of sages; in those of wives and mothers, the destructive part is removed while the healing aspects are emphasised.

Literary significance and reception[edit]

The book was quite popular in the late 19th century, and for a time the word "Vril" came to be associated with "life-giving elixirs".[9] The best known use of "Vril" in this context is in the name of Bovril (a blend word of Bovine and Vril).[10] There was even a Vril-ya Bazaar held at the Royal Albert Hall in London in March [11][12]

It also had a strong influence on other contemporary authors. When H. G. Wells' story The Time Machine was published in , The Guardian wrote in its review: "The influence of the author of The Coming Race is still powerful, and no year passes without the appearance of stories which describe the manners and customs of peoples in imaginary worlds, sometimes in the stars above, sometimes in the heart of unknown continents in Australia or at the Pole, and sometimes below the waters under the earth. The latest effort in this class of fiction is The Time Machine, by HG Wells."[13]

Recent research has shown that Bulwer-Lytton developed his ideas about "Vril" against the background of his long preoccupation with occult natural forces, which were widely discussed at that time, especially in relation to animal magnetism or, later, spiritualism.[14] In his earlier novels Zanoni () and A Strange Story (), Bulwer-Lytton had discussed electricity and other "material agents" as the possible natural causes for occult phenomena. In The Coming Race, those ideas are continued in the context of a satirical critique of contemporary philosophical, scientific, and political currents. In a letter to his friend John Forster, Bulwer-Lytton explained his motives:

I did not mean Vril for mesmerism, but for electricity, developed into uses as yet only dimly guessed, and including whatever there may be genuine in mesmerism, which I hold to be a mere branch current of the one great fluid pervading all nature. I am by no means, however, wedded to Vril, if you can suggest anything else to carry out this meaning namely, that the coming race, though akin to us, has nevertheless acquired by hereditary transmission, etc., certain distinctions which make it a different species, and contains powers which we could not attain to through a slow growth of time; so that this race would not amalgamate with, but destroy us. [] Now, as some bodies are charged with electricity like the torpedo or electric eel, and never can communicate that power to other bodies, so I suppose the existence of a race charged with that electricity and having acquired the art to concentre and direct it in a word, to be conductors of its lightnings. If you can suggest any other idea of carrying out that idea of a destroying race, I should be glad. Probably even the notion of Vril might be more cleared from mysticism or mesmerism by being simply defined to be electricity and conducted by those staves or rods, omitting all about mesmeric passes, etc.[15]

Bulwer-Lytton has been regarded as an "initiate" or "adept" by esotericists, especially because of his Rosicrucian novel Zanoni (). However, there is no historical evidence that suggests that Bulwer-Lytton can be seen as an occultist, or that he has been the member of any kind of esoteric association. Instead, it has been shown that Bulwer-Lytton has been "esotericized" since the s. In , the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia appointed Bulwer-Lytton as its "Grand Patron." Although Bulwer-Lytton complained about this by letter in , the claim has never been revoked. Other claims, such as his membership in a German masonic lodge Zur aufgehenden Morgenröthe, have been proven wrong.[16]

Those claims, as well as the recurrent esoteric topics in Bulwer-Lytton's works, convinced some commentators that the fictionalised Vril was based on a real magical force. Helena Blavatsky, the founder of Theosophy, endorsed this view in her book Isis Unveiled () and again in The Secret Doctrine (). In Blavatsky, the Vril power and its attainment by a superhuman elite are worked into a mystical doctrine of race. However, the character of the subterranean people was transformed. Instead of potential conquerors, they were benevolent (if mysterious) spiritual guides. Blavatsky's recurrent homage to Bulwer-Lytton and the Vril force has exerted a lasting influence on other esoteric authors.[17]

When the theosophistWilliam Scott-Elliot describes life in Atlantis in The Story of Atlantis & The Lost Lemuria (first&#;ed.), , the aircraft of the Atlanteans are propelled by Vril-force.[18] His books are still published by the Theosophical Society. Scott-Elliot's description of Atlantean aircraft has been identified as an early inspiration for authors who have related the Vril force to UFOs after World War II.

George Bernard Shaw read the book and was attracted to the idea of Vril, according to Michael Holroyd's biography of him.

French writer Jules Lermina included a Vril-powered flying machine in his novel L'Effrayante Aventure (Panic in Paris).

In his book of correspondences with David Woodard, Swiss writer Christian Kracht discusses his longstanding interest in Vril.[19]:&#;–&#;David Bowie's song Oh! You Pretty Things makes reference to the novel.

Stage adaptation[edit]

A stage adaptation of the book was written by journalist David Christie Murray and magician Nevil Maskelyne. The production premiered at Saint George's Hall in London on 2 January Both Nevil Maskelyne and his father John Nevil Maskelyne collaborated on the special effects for the play. The play did not meet with success and closed after a run of eight weeks.[21]

Vril Society[edit]

Willy Ley[edit]

Willy Ley was a German rocket engineer who had emigrated to the United States in In , he published an article titled "Pseudoscience in Naziland" in the magazine Astounding Science Fiction.[22] He wrote that the high popularity of irrational convictions in Germany at that time explained how Nazism could have fallen on such fertile ground. Among various pseudoscientific groups he mentions one that looked for the Vril: "The next group was literally founded upon a novel. That group which I think called itself 'Wahrheitsgesellschaft'&#;– Society for Truth&#;– and which was more or less localised in Berlin, devoted its spare time looking for Vril."

Jacques Bergier and Louis Pauwels[edit]

The existence of a Vril Society was alleged in by Jacques Bergier and Louis Pauwels.[23] In their book The Morning of the Magicians, they claimed that the Vril-Society was a secret community of occultists in pre-Nazi Berlin that was a sort of inner circle of the Thule Society. They also thought that it was in close contact with the English group known as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. The Vril information takes up about a tenth of the volume, the remainder of which details other esoteric speculations, but the authors fail to clearly explain whether this section is fact or fiction. Historians have shown that there has been no actual historical foundation for the claims of Pauwels and Bergier, and that the article of Willy Ley has only been a vague inspiration for their own ideas. Nevertheless, Pauwels and Bergier have influenced a whole new literary genre dealing with the alleged occult influences on Nazis which have often been related to the fictional Vril Society.[24]

In his book Monsieur Gurdjieff, Louis Pauwels[25] claimed that a Vril Society had been founded by General Karl Haushofer, a student of Russian magician and metaphysician Georges Gurdjieff.

Publications on the Vril Society in German[edit]

The book of Jacques Bergier and Louis Pauwels was published in German with the title: Aufbruch ins dritte Jahrtausend: von der Zukunft der phantastischen Vernunft (literally Departure into the Third Millennium: The Future of the Fantastic Reason) in

In his book Black Sun, Professor Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke refers to the research of the German author Peter Bahn. Bahn writes in his essay, "Das Geheimnis der Vril-Energie" ("The Secret of Vril Energy"),[26] of his discovery of an obscure esoteric group calling itself the "Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft", which revealed itself in a rare publication Vril. Die Kosmische Urkraft (Vril, the cosmic elementary power) written by a member of this Berlin-based group, under the pseudonym "Johannes Täufer" (German: "John [the] Baptist"). Published by the influential astrological publisher, Otto Wilhelm Barth (whom Bahn believes was "Täufer"), the page pamphlet says little of the group other than that it was founded in to study the uses of Vril energy.[27] The German historian Julian Strube has argued that the historical existence of the "Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft" can be regarded as irrelevant to the post-war invention of the Vril Society, as Pauwels and Bergier have developed their ideas without any knowledge of that actual association.[28] Strube has also shown that the Vril force has been irrelevant to the other members of the "Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft," who were supporters of the theories of the Austrian inventor Karl Schappeller (–).[29]

Esoteric neo-Nazism[edit]

Main article: Esoteric Nazism

After World War II, a group referred to by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke as the Vienna Circle elaborated an esoteric neo-Nazism that contributed to the circulation of the Vril theme in a new context.[30] In their writings, Vril is associated with Nazi UFOs and the Black Sun concept. Julian Strube wrote that a younger generation related to the Tempelhofgesellschaft, has continued the work of the Vienna Circle and exerts a continuous influence on the most common notions of Vril. Those notions are not only popular in neo-Nazi circles but also in movies or computer games, such as Iron Sky, Wolfenstein, and Call of Duty.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ ab Blackwood published five "editions" dated , all pages (perhaps impressions or printings of one edition), one in , and two in , pages. See WorldCat library records indexed as to ("Formats and Editions "). For instance, records OCLC&#;, , and , report copies of the 2nd, 5th, and 8th editions.
  2. ^ ab Classified advertisement (Publications). The Manchester Guardian, 15 May , p.&#;1. Quote in full, with original layout and approximate typography:
    This day is published,
    THE COMING RACE. In one volume octavo,
    price 10s. 6d.
    William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and London.

    Five days later The Scotsman published a version of the data, as "This day", above an excerpt from a review in the Daily News (p.&#;8). In The Observer for 21 May it was "Just published" (p.&#;1).

  3. ^ ab"The coming race" (first edition). Library of Congress Online Catalog. Retrieved
    &#; Apparently that record reports a copy of the 1st "edition" where LCCN&#; reports a copy of the 4th "edition", perhaps 1st and 4th printings of the first edition.
  4. ^Strube (), 55–
  5. ^ Classified advertisement (New Publications). The New York Times, 9 August , p.&#;6. Quote: "Published This Day". Price $
  6. ^ Classified advertisement (Books and Stationery). The Globe (Toronto), 8 August , p.&#;2. Quote: "Ready in a Few Days". Price 50 cents (C$).
  7. ^Redfield, Marc (). Phantom Formations: Aesthetic Ideology and the Bildungsroman. Cornell University Press. p.&#; ISBN&#;.
  8. ^Bulwer Lytton, Edward. "Vril: The Power of the Coming Race". wikisource.com. Retrieved 25 June
  9. ^Seed, David; Bulwer‐Lytton, Sir Edward () [], The Coming Race, Wesleyan University Press, pp.&#;xvii, .
  10. ^Hadley, Peter (), A History of Bovril Advertising, London: Bovril, p.&#;13.
  11. ^ abStrube (), 48ff.
  12. ^"'The Coming Race' and 'Vril-Ya' Bazaar and Fete, in joint aid of The West End Hospital, and the School of Massage and Electricity". Royal Albert Hall. Retrieved 29 March
  13. ^HG Wells' The Time Machine reviewed - archive, HG Wells | Books | The Guardian
  14. ^Strube (), 13–
  15. ^Lytton, Victor Alexander Robert (), The Life of Edward Bulwer Lytton, First Lord Lytton, vol. 1, London: Macmillan and Co., p.&#;f.
  16. ^Strube (), 55–
  17. ^Strube (), 69ff., 77ff.
  18. ^de Camp, L Sprague (), Lost Continents (first&#;ed.), p.&#;67.
  19. ^Kracht, C., & Woodard, D., Five Years (Hanover: Wehrhahn Verlag, ), pp. –
  20. ^Steinmeyer, Jim (), Hiding the Elephant: How Magicians Invented the Impossible and Learned to Disappear (trade paperback), Carrol & Graf, pp.&#;–85.
  21. ^Ley, Willy (May ), "Pseudoscience in Naziland", Astounding Science Fiction, 39 (3): 90–98.
  22. ^Goodrick-Clarke (),
  23. ^Strube (), –
  24. ^Pauwels, Louis, Monsieur Gurdjieff (in French), FR: Amazon, ASIN&#;.
  25. ^Bahn, Peter (), "Das Geheimnis der Vril-Energie: Berichte und Erfahrungen zu einer mächtigen Naturkraft", in Schneider, Adolf; Schneider, Inge (eds.), Neue Horizonte in Technik und Bewusstsein&#;: Vorträge des Kongresses im Gwatt-Zentrum am Thunersee, Bern: Jupiter-Verlag A.+l. Schneider, pp.&#;–46, ISBN&#;.
  26. ^Täufer, Johannes (), ""Vril" Die Kosmische Urkraft Wiedergeburt von Atlantis", Herausgegeben im Auftrage der Reichsarbeitgemeinschaft "Das kommende Deutschland" Zentralbüro (in German), Berlin: Astrologischer Verlag Wilhelm Becker. See image in German Wikipedia
  27. ^Strube (), –
  28. ^Strube (), 98–
  29. ^Goodrick-Clarke ().

Bibliography

  • Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (). Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity. New York: New York University Press. ISBN&#;.
  • Strube, Julian (). Vril: Eine okkulte Urkraft in Theosophie und esoterischem Neonazismus. Paderborn/München: Wilhelm Fink. ISBN&#;.

Further reading

  • Sünner, Rüdiger (). Schwarze Sonne: Entfesselung und Mißbrauch der Mythen in Nationalsozialismus und rechter Esoterik. Freiburg: Herder.

External links[edit]

  • The Coming Race at Project Gutenberg – transcript of unidentified edition that was published as "by Edward Bulwer, Lord Lytton"
  • Vril, The Power of the Coming Race, Sacred-texts.com – transcript of another unidentified edition
  • The Coming Race title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
  • Secret Flying Discs of the Third Reich, Laesie works, archived from the original on 10 October .
  • Conspiracy archive, Vril Society.
  • The Development of the German UFOs from before WW2, Galactic server.
  • "The Nazi Connection with Shambhala and Tibet", Kala chakra, Study Buddhism.
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vril
Lady Gaga: I've Always Liked To Shapeshift
Q:How is this outfit related to the Illuminati?
A: The The All Seeing Eye (Eye of Horus/Ra) is a direct reference to Vril Lizards.

Eye of Horus/Ra represents a Vril lizard's proboscis (the Quill) entering the victims eye and completely taking over (killing the human in the process). The lizards consciousness is then in full control of the victims body and they are then known as: a Drone, a Parasited Human Host or a Host of Vril.

"However, Marshall says that keeping the Secret of Vril not only refers to hiding the lizards and denying their existence, but also refers to an even bigger secret. Being a parasitic race, Vril lizards have the unique biological ability to invade the human body, take over the brain, and by accessing their memories, they can look, act and seem human in every way. After a period of recovery, the human is able to return to its normal activities, except the brain is now under the complete control of the Vril parasite.

Killuminatipng

Much like the scifi classic The Invasion of the Body Snatchers, in which the inhabitants of a small California town are replaced, one by one, with identical copies of themselves, Marshall warns us that we've already been invaded, we just don't know it.Marshall explains that Vril lizards are essentially parasites, and like all parasites, have a biological drive to invade, dominate and take over. Marshall refers to this biological takeover as "bodysnatching" and explains that the human victim dies once the Vril lizard takes over.

Marshall says that with the help of the Illuminati, bodysnatching Vril lizards have infiltrated all levels of society and hold positions of power all over the world. This is done in order to remove key people and replace them with Vril hosts. Marshall states that Vril hosts can be found everywhere, in all levels of government, business, banking, military, law enforcement, journalism, media and entertainment.

Just how is this bodysnatching process accomplished?

According to Marshall, Vril lizards have a natural proboscis at the top of their head, from which they eject a type of thick cerebrospinal fluid. When this fluid enters the human, usually through the eye and from there, to the brain, a chemical transformation immediately begins to take place. The victim essentially dies, leaving the lizard parasite in complete control of all brain function. After a period of recovery, the Vril host can return to its' regular activities, looking, acting and seeming completely normal.

Marshall reports that the Illuminati even hold a special bodysnatching ceremony to celebrate this Vril lizard takeover. Guests watch as the victim, conscious, though usually bound, is restrained and forced to sit still, until the lizard transfer is complete. Marshall claims to have seen this sick bodysnatching ceremony many times.

Marshall claims that the Illuminati bodysnatch many people, in every country, all over the world. They sometimes choose victims from incarcerated prisoners or longterm patients in hospitals and medical facilities; anywhere they have easy access to people, they will bodysnatch and replace them with a Vril host." -info taken from the Donald Marshall Revolution website

Vril lizards have acquired many names in the past such as mimic, chupacabra, fairy, troll, gremlin, mag yoi, leprechaun and many other names. They are parasitical creatures that come up from deep underground (inner earth).

Q: Who is Donald Marshall?
A: Donald Marshall is an Illuminati whistleblower, exposing the NWO, secret cloning, vril lizards and their human hosts living among us.

The world is in danger; please help share the information.
The survival of our species depends on it.

https://donaldmarshallrevolution.com/

http://www.auricmedia.net/wp-content/uploads//11/Donald-Marshall.-Summary-Disclosure.-Empowerment-by-Virtue-of-Golden-Truth.-Human-Cloning.-Specifically-REM-Driven-Human-Cloning.pdf

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and if that wasn't enough info to get you to care about what's going on in the world; there's also human cloning centers where they clone people & their childrenIlluminati get people when they go to sleepvia REM driven cloning (Top-Secret technology the Illuminati uses to transfer a person's consciousness to a clone of themselves to a cloning center (located in a deep underground military base). They even made a song describing the entire situation called Eurythmics - Sweet Dreams (Are Made Of This - Music Video).

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Sours: https://forums.mabinogi.nexon.net/discussion//illuminati-outfit-red-eye-strap-set

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