Virtual lab 1 answers

Virtual lab 1 answers DEFAULT

About this Course

Chemical reactions underpin the production of pretty much everything in our modern world.  But, what is the driving force behind reactions?  Why do some reactions occur over geological time scales whilst others are so fast that we need femtosecond-pulsed lasers to study them?  Ultimately, what is going on at the atomic level?  Discover the answers to such fundamental questions and more on this course in introductory physical chemistry.  

The course covers the key concepts of three of the principal topics in first-year undergraduate physical chemistry: thermodynamics, kinetics and quantum mechanics. These three topics cover whether or not reactions occur, how fast they go and what is actually going on at the sub-atomic scale.

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Biology (Raven), 10th Edition

Virtual Labs

Our Online Labs require that the Flash Player be installed on your system. If you do not have the player, go to the Flash Player download site to download the newest version of the player free of charge.Virtual Labs:
Virtual Labs are recreations of actual scientific experiments. Students are given background information on a topic, an explanation of the researcher's observations, and an overview of how they set up their experiment. The student follows the data collection process and is then asked to answers questions regarding that data. Students have an opportunity to read the original research paper before and after doing the experiment to gauge whether his or her understanding has increased, and to make the student more comfortable working with primary sources. In addition, interviews with principal investigators allow students to meet modern researchers.Virtual Lab 1 - Catching Evolution in Action
Real People Doing Real Science: John Endler (University of California, Santa Barbara) and David Reznick (University of California, Riverside) (1320.0K)
Virtual Lab 2 - Why Do Tropical Songbirds Lay Fewer Eggs?
Real People Doing Real Science: Mark Boyce (University of Alberta, Edmonton) (1429.0K)
Virtual Lab 3 - Unraveling the Mystery of How Geckos Defy Gravity
Real People Doing Real Science: Kellar Autumn (Lewis and Clarke College) and Robert Full (University of California, Berkeley) (1107.0K)
Virtual Lab 4 - How Do the Cells of a Growing Plant Know in Which Way to Elongate?
Real People Doing Real Science: Richard Cyr (Pennsylvania State University) (807.0K)
Virtual Lab 5 - How Do Proteins Help Chlorophyll Carry Out Photosynthesis?
Real People Doing Real Science: Andrew Webber (Arizona State University) (844.0K)
Virtual Lab 6 - Can Cancer Tumors Be Starved to Death?
Real People Doing Real Science: Randall Johnson (University of California, San Diego) (717.0K)
Virtual Lab 7 - How Regulatory Genes Direct Vertebrate DevelopmentVirtual Lab 8 - Cyanobacteria Control Heterocyst Pattern Formation Through Intercellular SignalingVirtual Lab 9 - Trading Hormones Among Fishes: Gene Technology Lets Us Watch What HappensVirtual Lab 10 - The Control of Patterning in Plant Root Development
Real People Doing Real Science: John Schiefelbein (University of Michigan) (813.0K)
Virtual Lab 11 - Do Some Genes Maintain More Than One Common Allele in a Population?
Real People Doing Real Science: Julian Adams (University of Michigan) (669.0K)
Virtual Lab 12 - Unearthing the Root of Flowering Plant PhylogenyVirtual Lab 13 - How Pseudomonas "Sugar-Coats" Itself to Cause Chronic Lung InfectionVirtual Lab 14 - Tracking Iron Stress in DiatomsVirtual Lab 15 - How Actin-binding Proteins Interact with the Cytoskeleton to Determine the Morphology of YeastsVirtual Lab 16 - Why Do Some Plants Accumulate Toxic Levels of Metals?
Real People Doing Real Science: Robert Boyd (Auburn University) and Scott Martens (University of Califonia, Davis) (865.0K)
Virtual Lab 17 - Which Pest Control is Best for Basil?Virtual Lab 18 - How Hormones Protect Seed Development in PeasVirtual Lab 19 - In Pursuit of Preserving Freshwater MusselsVirtual Lab 20 - Amphibian Eggs Hatching in Shallow Ponds Thirst for OxygenVirtual Lab 21 - Planning an Aerial Attack on Marauding Fire AntsVirtual Lab 22 - How Honeybees Keep Their Cool
Real People Doing Real Science: Jon Harrison (Arizona State University) (517.0K)
Virtual Lab 23 - Why Some Lizards Take a Deep Breath
Real People Doing Real Science: Elizabeth Brainerd (University of Massachusetts, Amherst) (907.0K)
Virtual Lab 24 - Discovering the Virus Responsible for Hepatitis C
Real People Doing Real Science: Michael Houghton (Chiron) (330.0K)
Virtual Lab 25 - In Search of New Antibiotics: How Salamanders Skin Secretions Combat Microbial InfectionsVirtual Lab 26 - How Snails "See" an Invisible TrailVirtual Lab 27 - Pheromones Affect Sexual Selection in CockroachesVirtual Lab 28 - Are Pollutants Affecting the Sexual Development of Florida's Alligators?
Real People Doing Real Science: Louis Guillette (University of Florida) (1135.0K)
Virtual Lab 29 - Why Does Contamination of a Coastal Salt Marsh with Diesel Fuel Lead to Increased Microalgal Biomass?Virtual Lab 30 - Factors Limiting the Home Range of Male VolesVirtual Lab 31 - Identifying the Environmental Culprit Harming Amphibians
Real People Doing Real Science: Andrew Blaustein (Oregon State University) (825.0K)
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Virtual Neuroscience Lab #1: Cocaine Study


Sometime near the end of 2020 - and no later than January 1, 2021 - Flash will no longer be supported by any Internet browser. That means our virtual labs will no longer run in browsers like Chrome, IE, Safari, Firefox, etc. Instead, to use the lab you must download files onto each computer and then run the lab in a stand-alone Flash player. For many school computer labs, this may require permission from your computer lab administrator. Detailed instructions for how to download the files are below.

Robert Stufflebeam: Animations, Artwork, Author, Design,
      Programming, Storyboards
Paul Garris: Author, Storyboards
David Leech Anderson: Storyboards
Kevin Stewart: Animations, Artwork
Allison Steinhauer: Animations, Artwork

Darci J. Harland: Storyboards, Prof Dev & Student Resources
Elisa L. Palmer: Author, Storyboards
Felix Greco: Storyboards
Barbara Meyer: Author, Storyboards
Jahnavi Mithyantha: Storyboards
Stefan Sandberg: Storyboards

Picture of virtual ratMODULE DESCRIPTION: Until recently, it was thought that the neurotransmitter dopamine was associated with the brain's reward system. For instance, when cocaine reaches the brain, there is a significant rise in dopamine levels. Recent experiments have shown that dopamine may play a role in reward seeking behavior as well. This is a virtual neuroscience lab where students perform an experiment studying the relationship between dopamine levels and cocaine seeking behavior in a virtual rat. The student must perform all the duties of a "real" scientist: read the background information, follow the lab procedures, select a rat, prepare a rat for surgery, perform the surgery, conduct the experiment, record observations, then publish the results. How data are collected represents the latest in dopamine measuring technology and cocaine self-administration in a trained rat. This virtual experiment is based on real-world experiments. And if the user does not follow lab procedures, as in the real-world, the virtual rat may die. The lab is a Flash file that will play in any browser that has a recent Adobe Flash plug-in. To download a new plug-in, go to


Introductory Materials

VIDEO TRAILER (For Teachers Only)

A brief video introduction to The Mind Project's Virtual Neuroscience Lab #1: Cocaine Study. These videos were created to familiarize teachers with the experience of the lab. We recommend that students do not see this preview because it has spoilers that will reduce the fun of discovery and it will reveal aspects of the lab that students should have to deduce themselves.

Introduction to Virtual Cocaine Lab (4 Minute YouTube Video)

A 4 minute video giving a brief introduction to instructors about the main goal of this virtual science lab. Not recommended for students (too many spoilers). Longer, more detailed videos for teachers are available below.

Virtual Cocaine Lab


THE VIRTUAL COCAINE LAB - Downloadable Flash Version

Since FLASH is no longer being supported by Internet browsers you must download a stand-alone version of the lab that will run in a separate Flash window. Even after downloading, internet connectivity is still required to view certain webpages that are part of the lab. Those pages will be launched in your native web browser when clicked on within the Flash player.

NOTE: In the original browser version of the lab users had the option to use what we called a "flexible" version of the lab which allowed you to skip to various places in the lab. Unfortunately, that flexible option is not available in the downloadable version.

The Virtual Cocaine Lab (Downloadable Flash Version)

This is an immersive virtual science lab. Regardless of how this lab is to be used with students, it is important that the instructor become proficient in working through the lab so that students can be given some direction if they get stuck.

The link above will take you to a page with all the information you need to determine if the downloadable version is right for you.


For those users who are unable to or choose not to download the offline version of the lab (see "Downloadable Flash Version" above) we have created a video version of the lab.

The Virtual Cocaine Lab (Video Version)

In this video version you will watch a person going through the entire lab, click-by-click. The video is designed with few pauses for time to read the text. That gives you more control. Pause the video each time a new screen appears. Read the text, and pay careful attention to all activities. If you do all of that, you will have a very similar experience to doing the interactive Flash version of the lab.

Material for Teachers & Students


The Cocaine Lab Professional Develoment Manual (PDF)
Author: Darci J. Harland

This pdf provides teachers with a detailed introduction to the lab, pedagogical goals and tips, national science standards, screen captures of the virtual lab itself with additional teaching tips not found on the website. Additionally, there are supplementary handouts that teachers can copy for students to use as they complete the lab, including the answer keys. Student handouts can also be downloaded separately; see below.

This manual was created for face-to-face teacher workshops organized by The Mind Project. We post all resources provided at our workshops here on our website to support teachers even if they have not attended one of our workshops.

Professional Development Video Tutorial: The Virtual Cocaine Lab (21 Minute Video)
Author: Darci J. Harland

The Professional Development for Teachers Video Tutorial provides professional development for teachers who are considering implementing the Virtual Cocaine Lab with their students. The tutorial is equivalent to the introductory training we offer in our face-to-face workshops It contains tips for using the lab with students, objectives aligned with state and national standards, and references to supplimentary mateirals currently available. Spoiler Alert: The video contains concepts in the lab that students should have to deduce themselves. There are separate introductory videos geared to students. NOTE: At the end of the video there is information about online services that the Mind Project website can no longer provide including special teacher and student accounts, online quizzes, and online course customization. We regret that our system no longer accommodates those features. (Length: 21 minutes)

Script of Professional Development Video Tutorial
Author: Darci J. Harland

This is a pdf file containing the script of the Professional Development Video Tutorial for The Virtual Cocaine Lab. If you are not able to view the video, this script is a nice alternative.

Quiz Answer Sheet
Author: Darci J. Harland

After students complete their observations in the experimental area of the Virtual Cocaine Lab, they answer questions using the notes they wrote in their lab notebooks. This file contains the answers to the 14 quiz questions.


The resources below are resources for students who participate in The Virtual Cocaine Lab. Teachers; feel free to distribute these resources to your own students in order to meet their individual needs and to meet your own curricular goals.

Student Video Tutorial: Overview of Virtual Lab (10 Minute Video)
Author: Darci J. Harland

The Overview video tutorial includes navigation tips, as well as brief descriptions of what lab participants will do at each of the lab stations. It includes an introductory explanation of cocaine, neurotransmitters, and motivated behavior so that participants can better focus on the purpose of the lab. We recommend that anyone planning to complete the Virtual Cocaine Lab, watch this video.

Text Script of "Student Video Tutorial" (PDF)
Author: Darci J. Harland

This is a pdf file containing the script for the video tutorial of The Virtual Cocaine Lab. If students are not able to view the tutorial, or you have students with special needs, this script is a nice alternative to watching the video.

Cocaine & Dopamine Video Tutorial (12 Minute Video)
Author: Darci J. Harland

The Cocaine and Dopamine video tutorial covers the essential neurobiology background needed to complete the lab. It is a condensed version of the three books found in the desk area. This tutorial can be used instead of, or in addition to the reading associated with the lab. The content can also be learned by downloading the tutorial script or the pdf of the virtual books.

Cocaine & Dopamine Video Tutorial Script (PDF)
Author: Darci J. Harland

This is a pdf file containing the Cocaine and Dopamine Tutorial script for The Virtual Cocaine Lab. If students are not able to view the tutorial, or you have students with special needs, this script is a nice alternative to watching the video.

Virtual Books: Student Handout (PDF)
Author: Darci J. Harland

This is a pdf file of the Virtual Books that are found in the desk area of The Virtual Cocaine Lab. Feel free to download this paper copy to view, distribute, or print for students to use. Some teachers prefer to assign this reading to students before they enter the virtual lab.

Lab Notebook: Student Handout (PDF)< or (MS WORD DOC)
Author: Darci J. Harland

The lab notebook is for taking notes so you have the important information you need for completing the lab. The notebook has questions to answer which guide you to the information that you need. There are three versions of the Lab Notebook. A webpage version has text boxes that you can write the information in, but it is not possible to save that information. Some teachers will want the students to write down the information in hardcopy or in a digital document that can be saved on the computer. That is why we offer a pdf and a Word doc version of the document. It has 17 questions on 3 pages with questions from the desk area, prep area, surgery area, and the experiment area.

Mathematical Science Conversions: Student Handout (PDF)
Author: Darci J. Harland

This is a pdf file containing the Cocaine and Dopamine Tutorial script for The Virtual Cocaine Lab. If students are not able to view the tutorial, or you have students with special needs, this script is a nice alternative to watching the video.


Funding: This module was supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) / Course, Curriculum, Lab Improvement (CCLI) Award #0127561 and National Institute of Health (NIH) / National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) / Science Education Partnership Award (SEPA) #1R25RR020425.

Titration Test Level 1
Photosynthesis Virtual Labs Virtual Lab #1     Bubbles of oxygen are given off by the plant through photosynthesis. By measuring the rate at which the oxygen bubbles are produced it is possible to tell how fast the plant is photosynthesizing. Read and follow the directions on how to use this lab simulator. Press start and record the bubbles per minute for each of the following light distances. Then graph your data (be sure to label each axis)! Based on your data, draw a conclusion regarding how light intensity affects the rate of photosynthesis. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Virtual Lab #2 In this lab, you will be experimenting with how different variables affect the rate of photosynthesis. 1. Set the thermometer to 25&deg;C (Room Temperature) and the light intensity to 20. a. How many bubbles per minute were produced at this setting? ______ bpm b. Now increase the CO2 available to the elodea. How many bubbles per minute? ______ bpm c. Based on your data, how does the amount of available CO2 affect the rate of photosynthesis? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Keep your settings (25&deg;C, light intensity of 20, increased CO2). a. What were the bubbles per minute at this setting? ______ bpm b. Now increase the temperature to 40&deg;C. What were your bubbles per minute? ______ bpm c. Based on your data, how does an increase in temperature affect the rate of photosynthesis? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Return to your settings (25&deg;C, light intensity of 20, increased CO2). a. What were the bubbles per minute at this setting? ______ bpm b. Now decrease the temperature to 10&deg;C. What were your bubbles per minute? ______ bpm c. Based on your data, how does a decrease in temperature affect the rate of photosynthesis? ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Alter the variables in order to determine which combination leads to the highest rate of photosynthesis. Which combination of settings produced the highest number of bubbles per minute? a. Temperature: ________ b. Light: ________ c. CO2: ________ Part 3. Photosynthesis Tutorial: Use this site to answer questions about photosynthesis. Make sure you read the paragraph above the animations carefully before answering. Some answers are in the paragraph, others will be found in the animation. Concept 1. Complete the chemical formula for photosynthesis: ________ + _________  C6H12O6 + _________ Concept 2. What happens to light energy that is absorbed by a plant? _____________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Concept 3. In this experiment 2 living organisms were used:  Spyrogyra is an algae that contains chloroplast in a spiral shape and is able to do photosynthesis.  Oxygen-dependent bacteria must have oxygen in order to live and reproduce  In the experiment, the bacteria collected in areas where there was more oxygen available. Explain why the bacteria accumulate near the areas where violet/blue and orange/red wavelengths were shining on the spirogyra. ____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Which wavelength (color) is absorbed the least?_________________ Does this result in a lot or very little photosynthesis? ________________ Support your answer with results from Thomas Engelmann’s experiment. ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Concept 4. Where in a plant does most photosynthesis take place? ___________ Which structure in the leaf allows CO2 in and Oxygen out? _______________ Label the diagram below. Concept 5. After reading the paragraph, Place a (*) next to the part of the leaf that is specialized for photosynthesis. Notice that there are spaces between these cells to allow CO2 and Oxygen to move to the stoma. Label the diagram below. Concept 6: Label the diagram below. Concept 7. Where are chlorophyll molecules found?_________________________ What is their job?______________________________________________________________________ Concept 8. Complete the chart below about the 2 reactions of photosynthesis. Name of the reaction Also known as… Takes place in Light dependent reactions Dark reactions Stroma Makes

Lab 1 answers virtual

1. Virtual Lab 1: Exp. 2b PostLab

Tutorial for Virtual Laboratory on Solubility Curves

This tutorial has three parts. The first deals with tips for solving the assignment and would be applicable to this experiment if it was run in either a real or virtual environment. The second deals with tips on running the Virtual Laboratory. The third deals with correlating experiment 2B which you will run this week with this virtual assignment.

Part 1; Tips for Running the Experiment:

OK, you have no instructions. So you have to think your way through this. A good place to start is to ask two questions. What is it that I know? What is it that I need to know? You know that your salt is one of the 5 unknowns, and you know how their solubility behaves as a function of the temperature. Look at the graphs, look at the scales, none of the 5 salts have the same behavior. What you need to know is which salt you got. Intrinsic to the nature of science is the possibility that there is more than one way to answer a question and you must keep this in mind. But your assignment says you must create a solubility curve for your unknown, so that’s a good way to go.

Now ask yourself, what are these plots of? Does that data represent a saturated, unsaturated or supersaturated solution? Think about the relationship between a dependent and an independent variable. Think of how you can design an experiment that elucidates this relationship.

Part 2; Tips on Operating the Virtual Lab:

First and foremost you need to familiarize yourself with the operation of the virtual lab. You should watch the video and other material available. The laboratory is "Windows intuitive" and amenable to drag and drop actions. This part of the tutorial will go over both specific ways to perform a procedure in the virtual lab, and some strategies for using the virtual lab.

You need to express solubility in units of gsalt/100g water. You can start with any quantity of water and calculate this value, or you can simply use 100 g water. You are not constrained to follow the procedures in Experiment 2B, in fact, for multiple unknowns the wet lab procedures will not work.

When you transfer solutions (transfer option of the tools menu) you can use "precise" transfer where you type in the exact value or "realistic" transfer which takes more time and introduces error. That is, you can transfer solution to a buret and "realistically" transfer it, or you can simply "pour" from the reagent container a "precise" quantity. Once again, you are not constrained to follow procedures you would need to use in the real lab.

You need to be able to observe if any solid precipitate forms at a given temperature and this can be done by setting the "species viewer" to solid which allows you to precisely read its mass. As you heat or cool this solution its solubility changes and a solid will either disappear or appear as you cross the solubility curve. You can not do this in the real lab, so take advantage of it.

The virtual lab operates at an ambient temperature of 25oC. This means that if your solution is above that temperature, it will cool to it, and if it is below that temperature, it will warm to it. There are two ways you can change the temperature of a solution. First, by dragging the Bunsen burner over it you can heat it. Second, by right clicking on the solution icon and then choosing "thermal properties" you can heat or cool it. Note, the second way is the only way you can cool it below 25oC and the second was has the option to thermally isolate the system. That means if you click "isolate from surroundings" the system will stay at the temperature. It is advised that you use this technique.

Part 3; Comparison of the Virtual Experiment to the Real Experiment:

There are some fundamental differences between the virtual lab and the real lab and these should be taken into account when designing an experiment. These differences can also give you a better understanding of the variables influencing a real experiment. For example, in the virtual lab you can add precise quantities of reagents and instantly heat or cool the system. You can not have refluxing or create a supersaturated solution. In the real lab you heated the solution up and cooled it down as this was easier than reheating between each value. Since the solubility increased as the temperature was raised you diluted the solution by adding water as it cooled. In the virtual lab you do not need to operate this way, in fact, you do not want to operate this way as it makes the calculations more complicated. In the virtual lab you can start over with any temperature and ratio of solute to solvent by clicking the mouse a few times. In the real lab you would have to reheat your water bath, re-measure your reagents and it would take a long time to get to any exact point on the solubility curve.

Note, in the virtual lab you can measure the precipitate in equilibria with the supernatant, which you cannot do in the real lab. So for example, if you add 100 g of salt to 100 g of water, and 40 g sits at the bottom, then 60 g dissolved.

As this is your first Virtual prelab or postlab of the semester it is suggested you do not wait until the last minute and take advantage of the department computing lab in SCLB 263. The attendant should be able to assist you with running the lab and you are welcome to drop by Dr. Belford's office (SCLB 277) if you need assistance running the lab. The "learning curve' with the virtual lab is substantially less than that with Excel but you need to quickly master it. Do not procrastinate until the last moment.

One of the objectives of the virtual lab this semester is for you to look at your actual experiments from a slightly different perspective, and get a better understanding of how the lab relates to the lecture.

McGraw Virtual Lab Tutorial Run Through

1. To provide remote-access to simulation-based Labs in various disciplines of Science and Engineering.

2. To enthuse students to conduct experiments by arousing their curiosity. This would help them in learning basic and advanced concepts through remote experimentation.

3. To provide a complete Learning Management System around the Virtual Labs where the students/ teachers can avail the various tools for learning, including additional web-resources, video-lectures, animated demonstrations and self-evaluation.

Good lab facilities and updated lab experiments are critical for any engineering college. Paucity of lab facilities often make it difficult to conduct experiments. Also, good teachers are always a scarce resource. The Virtual Labs project addresses this issue of lack of good lab facilities, as well as trained teachers, by providing remote-access to simulation-based Labs in various disciplines of science and engineering. Yet another objective is to arouse the curiosity of the students and permit them to learn at their own pace. This student-centric approach facilitates the absorption of basic and advanced concepts through simulation-based experimentation. Internet-based experimentation further permits use of additional web-resources, video-lectures, animated demonstrations and self-evaluation. Specifically, the Virtual Labs project addresses the following:

  • Access to online labs to those engineering colleges that lack these lab facilities
  • Access to online labs as a complementary facility to those colleges that already have labs
  • Training and skill-set augmentation through workshops and on-site/ online training

Virtual labs are any place, any pace, any-time, any-type labs. It is a paradigm shift in student-centric, online education.

Broad Areas of Virtual Labs

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